Blockchain

Article contributed by Dr. Nitin Pandey, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Technology and Computer Applications

Block-chain is a technology that keeps the records of transaction in distributed database or in ledger to provide some services of digital events such as bit-coin from one individual to another individual. For example if a person in China sends money to a person in India then the services of trusted third party such as Western union / Bank / PayPal are required however by using Block-chain money can be transferred from an individual in one continent or country to another individual in same or different continent or country without third party.

Block-chain is a public ledger where all the users of network are aware of all the transactions of all users within a network and every user of network can decide whether transactions are valid or not, that’s why there is no chance of unethical transaction.

If any transaction takes place in block-chain, it is recorded in distributed database in all the systems of network, so the hacking in block-chain is not an easy task because for hacking hacker needs to hack all the systems at the same time that is almost impossible that is why it’s considered a secure technology.

Block-chain was first used for bit coin. Bit coin is a decentralized crypto currency that does not under any authority such as bank / country. use of block-chain began for crypto currency but now it is under research for the betterment of government work or public work.      

Block-chain is a fault tolerance technology because data can not be lost. For example a failure of RAM, hard disk or cpu can crash the system causes data lost but in block-chain if failure occurs in some systems(nodes) then it can be tolerated because all the transactions are stored in all the systems. Block-chain is a distributed database that does not belong to one to two systems however it is distributed into thousands or millions of computers.

Now days block-chain is used in crypto currency but during the next couple of years we will surly see it in banking sector, public sector or private sector. Gradually every department will be adopting it due to safety, security and fault tolerance. Either it will be a matter of university degree or passport once it is recorded in block chain it can not be hacked or lost. Under government scheme in natural calamity, disaster, scholarship, compensation can be transferred directly to the beneficiary without intervention of third party causes reduction in corruption.    

Block-chain may also be applied in government or legal documents such as legal document of any property that is recorded in public register which is really a proof of the owner of a property. So there is a possibility that in future the work of public register shall be done by block-chain because validity of recorded transaction in block chain must be same as the validity of transaction in public register with more security and robustness.

EFFECTIVE TIPS ON MANAGING YOUR EMOTIONAL WELLBEING

Article Contributed by Ms. Chhavi Bhutiyani, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration.

If you learn to create the right kind of climate in your body, mind and emotion, your health, wellbeing and joy- everything will be taken care of.” – Sadhguru

 1 SAVORING:

Savouring is the act of stepping outside of an experience to review and appreciate it. Savouring intensifies and lengthens the positive emotions that come with doing something you love. Practice the art of savoring by picking one experience to truly savour each day. It could be a delicious meal, a great walk outside, or any experience that you really enjoy. These techniques include: sharing the experience with another person, thinking about how lucky you are to enjoy such an amazing moment.

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 2 GRATITUDE JOURNAL:

Gratitude is a positive emotional state in which one recognizes and appreciates what one has received in life. Research shows that taking time to experience gratitude can make you happier and even healthier. Take 5-10 minutes each night to write down five things for which you are grateful. They can be little things or big things. But you really have to focus on them and actually write them down. Do this each night for the whole week.

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Kindness In The Age Of Coronavirus - Lessons From The Holocaust

 3 ACTS OF KINDNESS:

There are many tales of hope amid Corona virus Crisis. People all over the world held rounds of applause for healthcare workers from their balconies and rooftops.

Try to perform seven acts of kindness beyond what you normally do. These do not have to be over-the-top or time-intensive acts, but they should be something that really helps or impacts another person.

Family On Social Media

 4 SOCIAL CONNECTIONS:

In this current uncertain and challenging time, people of all ages, can benefit greatly from staying connected with others virtually while they are on break from doing so in person. We shouldn’t underestimate the basic human need for social support and interaction. Not only does it enrich our lives, it also keeps us happy and well. Try to focus on making new social connections. The key is that you must take the time needed to genuinely connect with another person.

How to do Pranayam: Yoga Breathing Exercises You Must Include in Your Routine

5  EXERCISE, YOGA:

While you learn to breathe correctly, you’re setting things right internally, giving various bodily processes a thorough cleanse. Yogic breathing techniques are easy to do and can be done in the comfort of your home.

Research suggests that ~30 minutes a day of exercise can boost your mood in addition to making your body healthier. Spend each day getting your body moving with at least 30 minutes of exercise. Be sure to take a moment to notice how much better you feel after getting some exercise in.

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6 MEDITATE:

Meditation changes the brain for the better with the huge number of benefits it has to offer. From reducing stress and anxiety, making us emotionally aware and regulated to building self-control and help us build good habits. So if you feel stressed or anxious often or simply want to enjoy a more relaxed and grounded life, then give meditation a try and see how it changes your life!

 It is a practice of intentionally turning your attention away from distracting thoughts toward a single point of reference (e.g., the breath, bodily sensations, compassion, a specific thought, etc.). Spend (at least) 10 minutes per day meditating.

References:

Data Mining Applications to address Cardiovascular Health Issues

Article contributed by Mr. Anurag Bhatt, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Technology and Computer Applications

There is a tremendous growth in the Healthcare industry in past few years enabling the effective provision of best possible medical facilities in terms of cost as well as time. It is the need of the hour for Healthcare industry needs to redefine the standards and bring the analytical approach to new heights. Various researchers are discovering new approaches to effectively provide the solutions regarding prediction of various cardiovascular health issues at multiple levels using data mining. There is a difference between Predictive analytics and the descriptive and prescriptive analytics. Predictive analytics takes the medical records, reports etc of the patients as input thereby analyzing them using various advanced machine learning algorithms and statistical methods. There are various recent researches going on using data mining techniques, predictive analytical tools and techniques in order to analyze the cardiovascular health issues and to predict the future outcomes of the analysis effectively and efficiently. Thus, analyzing and examining the futuristic work and possibilities is extremely needed for the better understanding and applications of more effective and hybrid algorithms.

Knowledge Extraction majorly includes the process of Pattern Recognition Data Extraction. A lot of data is available from a number of organizations in today’s world, showing the record of each activity or event occurred. This enormous amount of data can be processed and used to extract the actual meaning or knowledge by reducing data sizes and by gracing us with immense knowledge. Medical Informatics and Clinical research is one of the unexplored fields that can yield valuable information to replenish medical services with knowledge for betterment of medical services. According to WHO (World Health Organization) annual report, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number 1 cause of death globally, including estimated 17.9 million lives every year. Every 4 out of 5 CVD deaths are due to heart attacks and strokes.


Fig.1. Data Mining, Predictive Analytics and Predictive Modeling relationship

Previously, data mining techniques were deployed through unsupervised learning in order to discover hidden patterns i.e. without assuming the basic nature and structure of data. Heart diseases including SCD (Sudden Cardiac Death) are one of the fatal diseases in India. Various Data Mining Techniques and Algorithms are being applied to the CVD data obtained from patient’s health reports and an intelligent system is being be developed to predict early cardiovascular health issues, thereby minimizing the risk of SCA (Sudden Cardiac Arrest) and SCD (Sudden Cardiac Death) and other severe cardiovascular issues. Predictive analytics has a salient role to forecast the results and various probabilistic crucial cardiac health patterns.

In previous time, cardiovascular disease was considered as an old age problem. But we have witnessed in recent time that cardiovascular diseases is the leading cause of death in both young and old aged people. In today’s society, improper nutrition, mental stress and modern lifestyle including regular intake of alcohol and tobacco, are considered as one of the most effective reasons behind having these cardiovascular diseases, even in young adults. There is an adequate requirement of various test cases and knowledge to predict the chances of occurrence of heart diseases. Intelligent data mining algorithms are deployed over these test cases and medical datasets.


Fig.2. Data Analytics steps

Knowledge extraction is one of the clear approaches that allow us to identify those hidden patterns required for finding patterns in the cardiovascular disease data. Now-a-days, there are multiple approaches to use decision based model. Scientists and researchers are deploying genetic algorithms, associative classification techniques and Naïve Bayes technique etc. in order to get the desired results. The performance of the algorithms also needs to be evaluated, on the basis of which efficient algorithm will be associated with particular dataset. Renowned researcher Abhisek Taneja has proposed J48 pruned algorithm and Naïve Bayes algorithm for the data sets taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository. The researcher has proposed the methodology in which data analysis has been done in two ways: using selected attributes and using all attributes. First, attribute selection method is taken as in data preprocessing phase and attributes are then run through J48 and Naïve Bayes Algorithm with taking both as selected attributes and all attributes.

Bibliography:

  • Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018, M. Pant et al. (eds.), Soft Computing: Theories and Applications, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 584, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5699-4_28
  • Taneja, A.: Heart Disease Prediction System Using Data Mining Techniques, Oriental Journal of Computer Science and technology, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 457-466, December 2013.
  • Jabbar, M.A., Chandra, P., Deekshatulu, B.L.: Heart Disease Prediction System using  Associative Classification and Genetic Algorithm, International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical, Electronics and Communication technologies-ICECIT, 2012.
  • Patil, R.R.: Heart Disease Prediction system using Naïve Bayes and Jelinek-mercer smoothing, International Journal of Advance Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, ISSN: 2278-1021, Volume 3, Issue 5, pp. 6787-6792, May 2014.